Archive for the 'Sapporo Summer Institute' Category

Japanese Slang

The following is a report in both Japanese and English from one of the participants of the 2012 Sapporo Summer Institute:

This past year, in our “Research and Exploration” Japanese class, we learned many polite Japanese words and phrases. These phrases could be used in a variety of situations, to a variety of people. However, since being in Japanese school and around Japanese teenagers, I have come to realize that learning Japanese slang and colloquialisms are just as important in order to master Japanese.

    As in America, Japanese slang and colloquialisms are continuously changing through years and generations. For example, the word “groovy” might have been popular in the 60’s, but fast forward 50 years and the word is now mostly heard on old movies or Scooby Doo. Although “groovy” is no longer a part of most peoples’ everyday vocabulary, it has been replaced with words with similar meanings.
Also similarly to American slang, I noticed that many of the Japanese slang words are merely shortened versions of “real words” themselves. For example, they might say “haya” instead of “hayai”, “tsuyo” instead of “tsuyoi”, or “hido” instead of “hidoi”. There is a pattern to this, as you might have found. In Japanese, there are many words that end with the same “i” sound. Taking the “i” off of one of those words makes it informal. In English, words such as “totally” and “probably” have been shortened to “totes” and “probs”.
When there is a pattern to the slang, it is fairly easy to pick up and incorporate into your Japanese speaking. On the other hand, there are colloquialisms that are seemingly related to other words, but have a different meaning. For example, the slang word “metcha” in Japanese sounds similar to “mechakucha”, but they have different meanings. “Metcha” means simply “very”, and “mechakucha” means “messy or disorderly”. One other word that is currently trending in Japan is “yabai”. When teenagers say it, they often leave out the “i”, as in the pattern from earlier. In the dictionary, “yabai” has been defined as “dangerous, risky, or awful”. The dictionary suggests that it has a negative connotation, but that is not always the case. According to Yu Takamatsu, my host brother in Japan during the three weeks I was there, “Yabai is used in many situations. It can mean dangerous or awful, but it is also used to express surprise. Sometimes you use it when you are impressed too…it has a lot of different meanings.” In America, teenagers are using the word “bomb” as a substitute for the words cool or awesome, though its real meaning is significantly different. Although the new meanings of these words do not make much sense in either Japanese or English, people still seem to accept it.
Some slang and colloquial expressions seemed oddly familiar to me during my stay in Japan, and once they were explained to me, I realized why. The first was the phrase “GET suru” which is pronounced more like “getto suru” in Japanese, due to the lack of closed consonants in their language. If you look at the phrase, you’ll notice the English word “get”. The meaning of this phrase is basically the same as what get means: “to receive or have possession of.” I haven’t heard this phrase spoken orally, but it was written in a Japanese clothing magazine. The second phrase was more difficult to make a connection to, because it was less obvious. I discovered the phrase “donmai” when one of my host brother’s friends asked me if it meant anything in English. I had to have him repeat it a few times before I realized he was saying “don’t mind”. This phrase is a shortened version of “I don’t mind”, and is used in the same way. I was surprised how much the English language influenced the Japanese, and their day to day colloquialisms.
There are, however, times when slang should not be used. Japanese culture has always stressed respect for elders, and it continues to be important through modern times. Slang is rarely used when speaking to teachers, although I occasionally heard teachers using slang to the students. Also, according to Yu Takamatsu, ”students in a higher grade must be regarded with respect, and slang should not be used unless you are friends.” The exception to these rules is family, where you almost never hear formal talk. In America, teachers and elders are supposed to be respected, but often they are not. At Grant High School, I remember witnessing a conversation between the student and the teacher, in which the student used slang to the teacher. Still, putting it simply, slang and colloquial expressions are used mostly to people close to you, in both America and Japan.
Listening to the Japanese teenagers talk, I thought I would never understand their slang, much less use it in conversation. Upon comparing Japanese and American slang and making connections, I found similarities in the words and phrases. In addition, the English in some of the phrases made them easier to remember as well. Japanese does come with lots of formal, polite language, which you must learn to fit certain situations. However, I believe that the opposite side of the spectrum matters just as much, because to be fluent, you need both sides to make a whole. During my time in Japan, I successfully learned how to use their slang correctly. As I continue to keep in touch with the new friends I’ve made, I will try to keep up with the new colloquialisms they are using, in order to “master” the language.


    去年、私達は 「研究と探究」 という日本語のクラスで、敬語を学び始めた。 習った敬語はいろいろな時に使うことが出来たので、とても大切であった。 しかし、日本の若者と一緒に学校などに行っていると、日本の俗語を習うのも大事だと思う。
アメリカの俗語と同様に、日本の俗語はいつも変わっている。 50年前に、アメリカで流行っていた俗語はもうあまり聞かない。 聞く時は古いテレビ番組や映画の中だけである。 その50年前の言葉はなくなったが、同じ意味のある新しい言葉が出てきている。
日本にいる間、気づいたのは不思議な俗語のパターンだった。日本人は 「い」 で終わる言葉を言うときに、「い」 をとっていた。たとえば、 「はやい」 が 「はやっ!」 になって、 「つよい」 は 「つよっ!」 になっていた。 このパターンはその二つの言葉だではなく、「い」 で終わる言葉のほとんど全部に使うことが出来る。 「ひどい」 は 「ひどっ!」 、「よわい」 は 「よわっ!」 そして 「ずるい」 は 「ずるっ!」 だった。 そういっても、このパターンを使えないときもある。 「きれい」 の発音は 「きれい」 ではなく、速く言うと 「きれ~」 になる事がある。したがって、 「い」 を取る意味はない。また、 「い」 を取る言葉がい~形容詞ではなければ、短くすることは出来ない。例えば、名詞の「みらい」 も 「い」 で終わるが、「みらっ!」 と言わない。 アメリカでも、言葉を短くした俗語がある。「トータリー」 (totally) と「プロバブリー」 (probably)を短くすると、「トーツ」(totes)と「プロッブズ」(probs)に変わる。
パターンがあると簡単に俗語を使うことができる。反対に、他の言葉に似ているが、違う意味を持っている俗語がある。若者がよく使う「めっちゃ」は「めちゃくちゃ」と似ているようであるが、「めっちゃ」は「とても」と同じ意味で、「めちゃくちゃ」は「汚い、ぐじゃぐじゃ」と言う意味なのである。今日本で人気がある言葉は「やばい」である。若者は前のパターンのように、「い」を抜いて言っている。しかし、辞書で調べると、「やばい」の意味は「あぶない」であるが、若者が使うと他の意味がある。私のホストファミリー(兄)の高松優君によると、「皆はびっくりする時も使うし、感動するときも使う。何でもやばいと言う。」 アメリカでは、「Bomb」(爆弾)を「Cool](かっこいい)と同じように使っている。そのように使うのは間違えているけど、皆はまだ使っているみたいである。
時々、もう意味を知っている気がする俗語にも出会ったが、説明してもらうと、どうしてかが分かった。最初は、「GETする」であった。見ると、英語の言葉の「GET」が入っている。「GET」の意味は、手に入れることで、「GETする」もおなじ意味なのである。これは、皆は口で言わないけど、洋服の雑誌に入っていた。二番目の俗語はもっと難しかったが、「ドンマイ」だった。優の友達に「ドンマイ」の英語の意味を聞かれたが、意味がわからず、三回ぐらい繰り返してもらって、やっとわかった。実は、「ドンマイ」は英語の「Don’t mind」を短くした俗語である。「Don’t mind」と「ドンマイ」は同じ意味がある。このように俗語に英語が沢山使われているので、私はびっくりした。


写真 1 (Picture 1) :  これは、洋服の雑誌の写真である。雑誌の中で、「GETできました」と書いてあった。「GETできました」は日本の俗語である。
This is a picture from a Japanese clothing magazine. In the magazine, “GET dekimashita”, which is another form of “GET suru”, was written. “GET dekimashita” is a slang phrase in Japan.

写真 2 (Picture 2) : この写真も、同じ雑誌に入っていた。雑誌の中に、テキストの例が書いてあった。「めっちゃ」は、話す時だけではなく、テキストをする時も使う。このテキストは「めっちゃ」の使い方を表している。
This picture is from the same magazine, and it shows an example of a text message Japanese teenagers might exchange. The word “metcha” is not only used in face-to-face conversation, but it is also used when texting. The usage of “metcha” is expressed in this text.

English in Japan

The following is a report in both Japanese and English from one of the participants of the 2012 Sapporo Summer Institute:



 ほとんど、お店の英語の名前、『alphabet’s alphabet』は製品にあまり関係がない。日本人に聞いたら、「英語はかっこいいから」と言う。
そ して日本の歌にもたくさんの英語が入っている。J-Popの音楽にはふつういくつかの英語のフレーズが入っている。日本人の若者はたくさんの違うアメリカとイ ギリスの音楽家の音楽を聞いている。英語がよくわかるわけではないけれど、英語はかっこいいと思っています。会話で英語を使う例も書きましょう。英語はどんどん 日本の文化に入ってきいる。たとえば私が日本で行った新川高校でだれか誕生日があったら、誕生日の歌は日本語ではなくて、英語で歌う。そして生徒は私に「これは英語で何ですか」と質問をたくさんした。私が教えた言葉は何度もリピートした。

Japan’s English
by Rachel S.

The last two times I came to Japan, I do not remember observing how much English is used in store names, on TV, and in their songs. All throughout the month that I was in Japan, I began to take pictures of all the interesting English store names. Quite often, the store name did not relate to the store products whatsoever. For example, a clothing store was named “alphabet’s alphabet.” This really made me wonder what the store owner had in mind when they made up the name. I decided to inquire around and see what Japanese people thought of the English in their store names. When asked if they could read all the English store names and such, the response was “no.” If the many Japanese can’t read or understand the English that is all around, then why is it so popular? The answer to this is that it’s simply considered “cool.” It was then pointed out that there are people from America who wear shirts with Kanji on them yet have no idea what it says. After noticing how much Japan uses English, it got me thinking about whether America does this same thing yet with other languages.

Music also another way that the Japanese seem to connect to America. For example, most J-pop songs have a couple of phrases in English that repeat themselves throughout the song. Not only that, but Japanese teens also listen to many artists from America and England even if they don’t understand what the song means. Not only is there English in their songs but English is also used as a slang in their everyday conversations. For example they say Ok, good, happy birthday and other words in English when there are actual Japanese words for them. Also, when at the school, the students were constantly wanting to know what some words were in English. For example, the first word I taught them was “card board box” and ever since then, they have remembered it. English is very much a part of the Japanese culture.

Not only do the Japanese seem to think that English is “cool,” my host mom was also very shocked when she found out that my Mother actually wanted me to buy her things that were traditional Japanese. Through the conversation, it came out that Japanese people didn’t really own Japanese things in their own homes. It is actually not in style to own traditional Japanese things. Thinking about it, I had noticed a large amount of American flags on clothing but I had never seen anyone wearing the Japan flag on their clothing. It almost seems like American is more than a place, it’s also a fashion. Their songs have English in them, their clothing has English on them, many store names are in English, and it’s all considered “cool.”

I find it amazing that the Japanese are quickly adjusting to other cultures from all over the world when unlike America, the majority of the country does not come from other countries. Over this month I really observed Japan’s use of English even more than I ever have before.